Rechazo generalizado, gran número de personas en su contra disturbios entre manifestantes y policía.
There were scuffles between riot police and dozens of protesters outside the convention centre where Mr Calderon and his cabinet met community leaders.
The president promised new initiatives to tackle crime in the city, which is a major battleground for drug cartels.
But he refused to withdraw troops, who critics say have worsened the violence.
Luz Davila, mother of two teenagers killed on 31 January
There were more than 2,600 murders in Ciudad Juarez last year.
On 31 January, 13 teenagers and two adults were shot dead at a high school party. Their families have said they had no gang ties.
"If those deaths... mean anything it is that we need to change after that absurd sacrifice," Mr Calderon told Ciudad Juarez residents.
The president promised improvements in health, education, welfare and infrastructure for the poverty-stricken northern city, but insisted he would not withdraw the 6,000 troops deployed there.
Julian Miglierini, BBC News, Mexico City This was a highly unusual day in Mexican politics. In a country where the institution of the president is considered sacred, Felipe Calderon exposed himself during several hours to direct accusations of inefficiency in his strategy to combat the drug cartels.
The people of Ciudad Juarez vented their frustration with the ongoing violence and the effect it is having on daily life in the border town where more than 5,000 people have been killed since 2006.
Mr Calderon said he was ready to readjust his policies and launched a series of social initiatives, but insisted he would not pull troops out, one of the popular demands.
His visit was aimed at opening a new chapter in the fight against drug trafficking, but as one of the local leaders told Mr Calderon in his face, it may have come too late.
But as soon as he finished his speech and opened the floor to questions, the criticism started to flow, says the BBC's Julian Miglierini in Mexico City.
"You come here one or two years late," a local leader told Mr Calderon, while a woman shouted: "You are not welcome here."
All those who spoke expressed their frustration about the level of violence, our correspondent adds.
They also complained about the lack of a proper infrastructure and alleged human rights abuses by the security forces.
The federal government's perceived lack of efficiency in dealing with the crisis was another major grievance.
Army helicopters patrolled the skies above, as federal riot police tried to disperse the dozens of people staging a demonstration.
Many were holding signs saying "army and police, leave!" and "Calderon out".
"Calderon's afraid... We want justice, we want him to resign," Luz Davila, whose two teenaged children were killed in the January high school party shooting, told the Reuters news agency.
Our correspondent says Thursday's frank and open session with citizens in a country where the president is widely revered may signal the start of a new chapter for Mexico's most pressing difficulty.
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